Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Modeling of Double-Pass Flat Plate Solar Air Heater with Porous Media

Rahul Mistry, Akshada Mule, Kalpesh Kurade, Sonal Padule


The double-pass solar collector with porous media in the lower channel provides a higher outlet temperature compared to the conventional double-pass collector without porous media. Therefore, the thermal efficiency of the solar collector is higher. A theoretical model has been developed for the double-pass solar collector. The porous media has been inserted to increase heat transfer, area density and the total heat transfer rate. Comparisons of the theoretical and the experimental results have been conducted. Such comparisons include the outlet temperatures and thermal efficiencies of the solar collector for various design and operating conditions. The relationships include the effect of changes in upper and lower channel depth on the thermal efficiency with porous media. Moreover, the effects of mass flow rate, solar radiation, and temperature rises on the thermal efficiency of the double-pass solar collector have been studied. In addition, heat transfer and pressure drop relationships have been developed for airflow through the porous media. The study concluded that the presence of porous media in the second channel increases the outlet temperature, therefore increases the thermal efficiency of the systems.

Full Text:



F.L. Lansing, R. Reynold. High performance flat plate solar collector, Solar Energy. 1996; 24(2): 90–9p.

Naphonparison. Effect of porous media on the performance of the double pass flat plate solar air heater, Solar Energy. 1996; 12(1): 90–9p.

Jannot. Yves, YezoumaCoulibary,“Radiative heat transfer in a solar air heater covered with a plastic film”, Solar Energy. 1997; 60(1): 35–40p.

A.A. Mohamad. High efficiency solar air heater, Solar Energy. 1997; 60(2): 71–6p.

G. Dhanajay, S.C. Solanki, J.S. Saini. Thermo hydraulic performance of solar energy air heaters with roughened absorber plate, Solar Energy. 1997; 61(1): 33–42p.

M.A. Nimr, Alkram, M.k. Alkram. A modified tubeless solar collector partially with porous substrate, Renew Energy. 1998; 13(2): 165–73p.

A. Koib, E.R.F. Winter, R. Viskanta. Experimental studies on the solar air collector with metal matrix absorber, Solar Energy. 1999; 65(2): 91–8p.

N. Akhtar, S.C. Mullick. Approximate method for computation of glass cover temperature and top heat loss coefficient of solar collector with single glazing, Solar Energy. 1999; 66(5): 349–54p.

P.-X. Jiang, Z.-P. Ren. Numerical investigation of forced convection heat transfer in porous media using a thermal non-equilibrium model, Solar Energy. 2001; 2–10p.

E.A. Musa, K. Sopian, S. Abdullab. Heat transfer analysis and pressure drop correlation for the double pass solar collector with porous media, J Energy Environ. 2004; 15–24p.

M.K. Mittal, R.P. Saini, S.K. Singal. Effective efficiency of solar air heaters having different types of roughness elements on the absorber plate, Solar Energy. 2007; 32(2): 739–45p.

R. Karwa. Need for reliable heat transfer coefficient correlation for transition flow regime in rectangular duct of smooth plate solar air heater, Heat Mass Transf. 2000; 399–402p.

K.B. Muluwork. Study of heat transfer and friction in solar air heaters with staggered discrete ribs, Heat Mass Transf. 2000; 391–7p.

Q. Zhao, G.W. Salder, J.J. Leonardo. Transient simulation of flat-plate solar collectors, Solar Energy. 1988; 40: 167–74p.

C. Choudhury, S.L. Anderson, J. Rekstad. A solar air heater for low temperature applications, Solar Energy. 1988; 40: 335–44p.

B.A.A. Yousef, N.M. Adam. Performance analysis for flat plate collector with and without porous media, J Energy Southern Africa. 2008; 19(4): 32–42p.

M.K. Mittal, L. Varshney. Optimal thermo hydraulic performance of a wire mesh packed solar air heater, Solar Energy. 2005; 80: 1112–20p.

K.R. Aharwal, B.K. Gandhi, J.S. Saini. Experimental investigation on heat transfer enhancement due to a gap in an inclined continuous rib arrangement in a rectangular duct of solar air heater, Renew Energy. 2007; 33: 585–96p.

A. Bashria, A. Yousef. Analysis of single and double passes V-grooves solar collector with and without porous media, Int J Energy Environ. 2007; (1): 109–14p.

Y. Raja Shekhar, K.V. Sharma, M.B. Rao. Evaluation of heat loss coefficients in solar flat plate collectors, ARPN J. 2009; l4(5): 15–9p.

M. Pradharaj, V. Velmurugan, H. Moorthy. Review on porous and non-porous flat plate air collector with mirror enclose, Int J Eng Technol. 2010; 2: 4013–9p.

E.M. Languri, H. Taherian. Enhanced double-pass solar air heater with and without porous medium, Int J Green Energy. 2011; 8: 643–54p.

E.M. Sparrow, K.K. Tien. Forced convection heat transfer at an inclined and yawed square plate application to solar collectors, Heat Transfer. 1977; 99: 507–22p.

W.H. McAdams. Heat Transmission. 3rd Edn., New York: McGraw Hill; 1954.

S.P. Sukhatme. Solar Energy. 3rd Edn., New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill; 1984.


  • There are currently no refbacks.