Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Evaluation of Heavy Metals Interaction in Water Environment

C. Ukpaka, F. Onuoha


Assessment conducted in this research is to study the interaction of heavy metals within groundwater environment using the control system of parameter distribution (CSPD) model. Results of assessment revealed that for the heavy metals evaluated; arsenic, copper, zinc, lead, cyanide, selenium, cadmium, manganese and total mercury interaction within the groundwater environment can be predicted using CSPD. Comparing experimental and simulated results of heavy metals investigated to world organization standard, results revealed that both are within acceptable limited.

Full Text:



J.C. Agunnwaba. Waste Engineering and Management Tools. 1st Edn., Immaculate Publication Ltd, No. 2 aku street, Ogui N/layout, Enugu; 2001, 366–71p.

Alpha, AWWA, WEF. (1998), Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Waters. 20th Edn., Washington D.C.: America Public Health Association; 1998, 233p.

APHA. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste Water. 15th Edn., Washington D.C.: America Public Health Associatuin, AWWA, WPCF; 1981.

P.S. Arcadio, A.S. Gregoria. Environmental Engineering: A Design Approach. New Delhi: Prentice – Hall of India Private Limited; 1991, 2–52p.

A.K. Chartterjee. Water Supply, Waste Disposal and Environmental Engineering. 2-B Nath Market, Nai Sarak, Delhi: Romesh Chander Khnanna for Khanna Publishers; 2010.

J.R. Dash, P.C. Dash, H.K. Patra. A correlation and regression study on the ground water quality in rural areas around Angul – Talcher industrial zone, Int J Environ Protect. 2006; 26(6): 550–8p.

S.N. Eluozo, T.C. Nwofor. Evaluating the variation of transmissivity on groundwater development in Rivers State, Int J Appl Environ Sci. 2012; 7(2): 141–7p.

S.K. Garg. Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering. 14th Edn., New Delhi: Romesh Chander Khanna for Khanna Publishers 2-B; 2007, 700–3p.

K. Gerard. Environmental Engineering. International Edition, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1998, 200–350p.

P.K. Goel. Water Pollution, Causes Effects and New Age. Internatim (p) Ltd; 2006; 1–300p.

G.M. Masters. Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Science. Prentice Hall, Englelvood Clifts, NJ, 1991.

T.J. MCGHEE. Water Supply and Sewerage. NY: McGraw-Hill; 1991.

Nigeria Industrial Standard, Nigerian Standard for drinking water quality NIS 554, 14, 2007.

I.L. Nwaogazie. Finite Element Modeling of Engineering System with Emphasis in Water Resources. 2nd Edn., University of Port Harcourt Press, Nigeria, 2008, 41–180p.

A.O. Ogedengbe, M.U. Abba. An assessment of Dug – well water quality and uses in Mubi, Nigeria, J Sustain Dev Agric Dev. 2006; 2(1): 10p.

C.O. Okeke, A.H. Igboanua. Characteristics and quality assessment of surface water and ground water resources of Akwa Town, Southeast, Nigeria, J Niger Assoc Hydrol Geol. 2003; 14: 71–7p.

H. Pathak, S.N. Limaye. A mathematical modeling with respect to DO for environmentally contaminated drinking water sources of Makronia sub-urban area, India: a case study, Ovid Univ Ann Chem. 2011d; 22(2). ISSN – 1223–7221.

H. Pathak, S.N. Limaye. Assessment of Physico – chemical quality of municipal water samples of Makronia sub-urban RArea of Bundel Khand Region, India, Anaele University din Oradea – Seria Geografie, 2012a, 2, 122–7p.

H. Pathak, S.N. Lirmaye. A water quality index mathematical modeling of water samples of Rajghat, water supply reservoir sagar (M. P.) with respect to total dissolved solids: A regression analysis, The Polytechnic Institute of Iasi, 2012; 1. ISSN: 0254–70104.

K. Patowary, K.G. Bhattacharya. Evaluation of drinking water quality of coalmining area, Assam, Indian J Environ Protect. 2005; 25(3): 204–11p.

A.L. Prashuhn. Fundamental of Hydraulic Engineering Holt. NY; Rinehart and Winston; 1987.

M.E. Schimpf, M.P. Petteys. Characterization of humic materials by flow field – flow fractional colloid surf, 1997; 120–30p.

C.P. Ukpaka, C. Ukpaka. Characteristics of groundwater in Port – Harcourt, J Adv Environ Sci. 2016; 1(2): 59–71p.

C. Ukpaka, L.N. Ify, U.C. Peter. Prediction of nitrate interaction for Egi Clan groundwater investigation in Rivers State of Nigeria, CASRP J Appl Sci. 2015; 1(14): 118–32p.

WHO. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Addendum: Microbiological Agents in Drinking Water. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001.


  • There are currently no refbacks.